Not Entirely—But It Can Be Treated to Minimize Its Effects
About 5 million U.S. women of reproductive age have polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), the most common hormonal problem in women of reproductive age. It usually starts at puberty, when hormone production starts. Women with PCOS make more of the male hormone (androgen) than normal. This can cause infrequent and/or irregular periods and signs of excess male hormone.
At least two of the following conditions are necessary to make a diagnosis of PCOS:
- Absent or chronically irregular periods
- Signs of high male hormone levels: oily skin and hair, acne that lasts into adulthood, and hirsutism (abnormal hair growth on the face, chest and abdomen)
- An ultrasound showing multiple small cysts on the ovaries (polycystic ovaries)
PCOS and Related Health Challenges
In addition to abnormal menstrual cycles, acne, and hirsutism, women with PCOS also have health challenges. These include elevated cholesterol, high blood pressure, and type 2 diabetes, which can lead to heart disease and stroke. Women with PCOS also have a higher risk of depression and are more likely to develop uterine cancer, compared to women without PCOS.
Because the hormone imbalance interferes with ovulation, it contributes to infertility.
How Genetics Relates to PCOS
To address the original question, “Can PCOS be prevented?” the answer is, “not entirely.” Many cases are genetically acquired and tend to run in families. However, the role of genes is not exactly clear.
If you have a mother or sister with PCOS, or a first-degree relative with type 2 diabetes or glucose intolerance, this may mean you’re more likely to develop the condition.
Thirty percent of women with PCOS have mothers with the condition and 50 percent have sisters with the condition.
PCOS can be passed down from your father’s side as well.
While your genes make you susceptible to developing the condition, this doesn’t necessarily mean that you will. Some women develop PCOS only when they have other risk factors. These include:
- Being overweight
- Eating a poor diet
- Getting too little exercise